Day 1 :
- Oil and Gas
University if Teesside, UK
The use of data analytics, and the loosely defined 'Digital Oilfield' have been one of the most talked about emerging technologies in the oil and gas industry for the last decade or so.
The industry has more than embraced these innovations, and is now exploring the next big breakthrough for digitizing its operations.
Harshit Sharma will present:
- A technology roadmap of how the future, digital oil and gas industry will look like by 2030
- Identifying key movers and players who are accelerating this renovation
- Debate the likely challenges and issues which need resolving for the industry’s subsequent advance
During shale gas development, large amount of adsorbed gas in the shale pores are gradually desorbed, which results in different shale properties changes such as permeability, structure, etc. This paper objective is to determine how the adsorption and desorption characteristics of shale can be used for shale gas evaluation. Different concepts such as: measured gas; lost gas; bulk density; residual gas; geochemistry of shale gas; gas filled porosity and others will be discussed and supported by theoretical evidences and experimental measurements. The importance of adsorption-desorption correlation to assure accurate shale gas content will be presented as well. The question of how small canisters and high resolution equipment are necessary to measure the gas content of individual shale sidewall samples will be answered
Maharashtra Institute of Technology, India
An overview of porosity-permeability relationship in sand-shale and carbonate systems is discussed with available case studies. They are heterogeneous systems ranging from excellent reservoirs to tight-impermeable rocks. Large variation in composition, depositional textures and structures is common in occurrence. Carbonates system tend is complex and difficult to predict compared to the sand system. In general, based on statistical records these two systems together represent ninety-eight percent of reservoir rocks in the reported case histories of conventional petroleum system. In addition, ninety-six percent of source rocks are made of shale and mud component in carbonates while sixty-eight percent of them provide sealing mechanism in the petroleum geosystem from the available records.
The poroperm relationship with increasing depth is demonstrated using large dataset available on these systems., Other variables like density, pore size, shale volume and mineralogy have also been used wherever possible. Permeability dispersion in both systems is often anomalous particularly in the presence of mudstone in both systems as compared to porosity variation against depth suggesting heterogeneous behaviour on a core to log scale responsible in changing threshold pressure due to pore throat size. Calculation of shale volume and clay mineralogy plays a key role in sand shale system while grain size changes and diagenetic reactions control variation in the carbonate system while discussing the poroperm. Often features like bioturbation change the poroperm trend. Micro-scale anisotropy is one factor that is found to influence permeability which, in carbonates, can cover an extremely large range even in a single reservoir. Bedforms are influential in controlling permeability changes in the sand shale system. In general, depositional environment plays a key role in developing heterogeneity and also anisotropy. Fracturing may enhance permeability in sandstone reservoirs. Therefore, it is recommended to develop an analogy with the outcrop to understand the precise variation in the rocks.
Poroperm relationship with increasing depth particularly in the realization of gross to net thickness is crucial in improving understanding on quality of reservoir and thus certainty level is this high investment game of risk and uncertainty.
Komar University of Science and Technology, Iraq
Conventional method of injection that uses only a high concentration and molecular weight of single polymer, often leads to fingering effects due to mobility ratio, and the entrapment of pore throats in the injected area due to the difference in size between the pore throat and the hydrodynamic polymer chain radius. To avoid this unfavorable phenomenon, a sequential method of polymer injection is used by injecting varying molecular weight of polymers starting from low to high concentration in three stages of sequential injections. Polymer injection/flooding is considered one of the most effective and successful method for the enhancements of oil recovery.
In this work we have investigated the feasibility of sequential polymer injection in different reservoir rocks characterized by different heterogeneities. It is apparent that heterogeneity is one of the main factor associates with poor EOR performance. Therefore, investigating heterogeneity and the factors affect EOR efficiency is of great importance to oil/gas industry.
The static model was developed from an example field data in the region. Reservoir rock properties were correlated and modeled using Kiring and Gaussian geostatistics simulation. Thereafter the model was brought to reservoir simulation software to investigate EOR performance. The REVEAL and in house simulator software have been used for assessing the efficiency EOR model using sequential chemicals injection.
Results indicated that sequentially injected polymers varying in concentrations can be a viable alternative to conventional polymer flooding methods, particularly in very heterogeneous reservoir if compared to results obtained with conventional method of polymer injection.
The British University in Egypt, Egypt
Indian Institute of Technology,Dhanbad, India
The current global energy demand is highly dependent on the extraction of natural resources that remains trapped within existing oil reservoirs. Initially, the crude oil is recovered by primary and secondary techniques. However, nearly two-thirds of the original oil in place (OOIP) still remains within the rock pores. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) encompass a variety of mechanisms to achieve greater oil recovery by the incorporation of various techniques. One of these methods involve the injection of chemical slugs that are injected into the reservoir to effectively displace residual oil. Surfactant design is a potential area of interest in this method. Surfactants lower IFT by adsorbing onto the crude oil-aqueous interface and improve the oil displacement efficiency in chemical EOR processes.
In the present study a family of carboxybetaine based surfactants with hydrophobic tail length of 12, 14, 16 and 18 carbons were synthesized for their application in chemical EOR. The synthesis of surfactants was done by quaternizing tertiary amines of different carbon chain lengths by sodium chloroacetate. The synthesized surfactants were characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy and their solubility in water was tested by Krafft temperature analysis and salt tolerance test. To check for the applicability of surfactants in chemical EOR, their IFT reduction tendency, phase behavior and wettability alteration effectiveness were evaluated. Finally, sand pack experiments were conducted to test the recovery of trapped oil by injection of surfactant slug along with alkali and polymer.
IFT between oil and surfactant solution was also found to reduce with increase in carbon chain length and ultralow IFT was achieved by the synergetic effect of alkali and C16DmCB surfactant. The larger hydrophobic tail length was found to improve the oil-water interface activity. C16DmCB surfactant was found to form stable three phase microemulsion which is beneficial for its applicability in EOR. The surfactants were also found effective in altering the wettability of oil-wet quartz sample to preferentially water-wet with very lesser loss of surfactants. More than 30% additional oil recovery was achieved by the synergetic effect of alkali-surfactant-polymer in flooding experiments. The results show that the synthesized zwitterionic surfactants are having good potential for their use in chemical EOR.
Soran University, Kurdistan Region Iraq
The current work deals with developing, assessing, and analyzing a novel improved water-based drilling mud by using alternatives based on waste materials for the purpose of substitution of the commercial drilling mud constituents. Two alternatives were investigated, the first is an industrial waste as alternative for the commercial barite; the weighting products used for increasing fluid density, the second alternative has been derived from an agro waste and used as substituent of the commercial lignosulfonates; the thinning agents used for clay deflocculating and reduction of drilling fluids viscosity. The effect of the content (wt.%) of first alternative (7.2-12.8), and the second alternative (3-7.8) on mud weight, pH, and rheological properties including plastic viscosity, yield point, gel strength, filtration loss, apparent viscosity and filter cake thickness was optimized using two factorial central composite experimental design. The mathematical models for prediction the effect of the content of the two alternative materials on drilling fluid characteristics were estimated. The effect of salt contamination NaCl (0-5) % weight and pH (7.12-11.95) on rheological properties of the new adopted drilling mud formulations contain the optimum concentration of the two alternatives estimated from response surface analysis was investigated and correlated. The overall results revealed that the tested alternatives are promising substituents for the commercial mud constituents. The stability of the formulated drilling fluid seemed to change due to salt contamination and changing the pH in particulaire plastic and apparent viscosity and yield point. Using the new alternative ingredients may highly contribute to production of new drilling mud formulations of developed performance, minimizing the drilling mud cost, as well as protection the environnement by reusing the waste materials instead of its disposal.
Drilling mud; Waste; Rheological properties; Optimization; Modeling
University Of Petroleum and Energy Studies, India
It's an era of non-conventional resources. With increase in complication in drilling, and transportation of crude oil the need for Cutting edge technologies is growing at a high pace. The sole objective of the Paper is to make use of the modified microorganism (having altered DNA) to digest oil if accidentally Oil Spill occurs in order to reduce Environmental Pollution.
2. METHODS, PROCEDURES,PROCESS:
Oil Digesting Bacteria’s such as Thalassolituus olievorans and Neptumonas can reduce the fear of Oil Spill during the Transportation of Oil as these microorganisms can digest oil and break long chain of alkenes and convert it into CO2 and water.
The paper describes about the new approach that is based on combination of the DNA of Oliespira (Highly efficient deep sea oil digester that cannot work in saline conditions) and Neptumonas (Poor Oil Digester that can work in saline conditions). Using DNA Recombination Technique through which we can alter the DNA of the bacteria so that we can get single bacteria having both the desired characters (i.e. a bacteria containing both features of High efficiency and can work in saline water). These modified bacteria’s can be exploited by making the use of asexual reproduction and unfavourable conditions for increasing the no. of bacteria.
3. RESULTS, OBSERVATIONS, CONCLUSIONS:
The modified bacteria having both the desired traits i.e. Digestion of Oil in sea water and deep sea levels will help in solving the problem of environmental pollution. The results would be mind boggling as a single microorganism would serve as the solution for various terms related to Oil Spill. The microorganism at normal or low temperature it will act as an Oil Digester which can work in sea water. With the use of these modified microorganisms we will be able to protect our environment and hence control extent of oil spill.
4. NOVEL OR ADDITIVE INFORMATION:
Exemplary management and proper working of these genetically modified bacteria’s would be a boost for the industry. With the use of these modified microorganisms (bacteria’s) we will be able to protect our environment and also avoid the harmful effects caused by the Oil Spills.