Scientific Program

Day 1 :

  • Oil and Gas

Session Introduction

M. Rafiqul Islam

Emertec Research and Development Ltd, Canada

Title: Opportunities in Basement reservoirs and Unconventional Formations
Speaker
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Abstract:

Hydrocarbons and their transformations play major roles in sustaining today’s civilization. Petroleum fluids are essential for providing chemical and energy sectors with raw materials that are needed for practically all aspects of modern living ranging from transportation to health and medicine. After water, crude oil is the most abundant naturally occurring fluid on earth. However, the modern era has few direct applications of crude oil and practically none of the produced petroleum is processed, either through refining or gas processing, prior to final use. Unfortunately, all modern techniques for refining are also known to be inherently damaging to the environment. In the information age, environmental sustainability has become the most important concern and there is a growing urge to find either an alternative to petroleum fluids or any technology that ‘minimizes’ the environmental impact. While some progress has been made in developing alternate energy sources, few, if any, present a truly sustainable option. More importantly, no realistic alternate source, sustainable or otherwise, for millions of tons of chemical raw materials for the chemical/medical industries has been suggested. In this regard, basement reservoirs, as well as unconventional formations, offer an unprecedented opportunity. However, the true benefit of the petroleum fluids produced from these resources cannot be appreciated without the thorough scientific understanding of their nature. This keynote speech presents a scientific investigation into the nature of basement and unconventional rocks, the origin of the petroleum that impregnates these rocks and how to properly characterize the behavior of these rock/fluid systems. It is shown with clarity that these fluids are amenable to sustainable petroleum usage and with careful management skills they can become the hallmark of a sustainable source of both energy and chemical raw materials. This paper explains the fundamental features of the hydrocarbons in the basement and unconventional formations, geological aspects of fractures and types of fractures, and a novel reservoir characterization technique. Two dominant theories of the origin of basement fluids are presented and arguments made in supporting the validity of these theories within a specific domain. A guideline for scientific characterization is presented in order to determine the ranking of petroleum fluids. The characterization gives one a unique tool for suitable application of the petroleum fluids based on their inherent qualities. Overall, this paper shows that the petroleum resources are indeed infinity if used in a sustainable manner.

Speaker
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Abstract:

An essential step in materials degradation is the determination of the failure mechanism. For example, stress, metallurgical (microstructure), or environment-assisted cracking, help the determination of the fundamental cause of failure and recommendation on proper measures to prevent failure recurrence. In this context, environment-assisted cracking (EAC), or environmentally induced failure (EIF), is a form of corrosion that produces a brittle fracture in alloys with minimal corrosion. As for example, environmentally assisted cracks in line pipe steels are initiated either as a result of stresses in combination with environmental effects, as in stress corrosion cracking (SCC), or as a result of trapped hydrogen in the steel, as in hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC).  To understand better the mechanism of the crack initiation process, key metallurgical and environmental elements that can affect the cracking phenomena were investigated and are reviewed in this paper.  The complexity of both cracking phenomena results from the dependence of HIC and SCC on multiple metallurgical, mechanical, and environmental parameters that may all influence both crack initiation and propagation; e.g., composition, microstructure and non-metallic inclusions in the steel, applied stress, water chemistry in the field, and ionic concentrations in the groundwater near the pipe surface to name a few for SCC. 

In addition, for HIC phenomena, one can add the concentration of H2S in the fluids transported in the pipe as well as concentration of CO2, pH, etc.  Furthermore, it is not well-known why similar steels can have different performance, ranging from good resistance to significant embrittlement. A better understanding of the microstructural characteristics is important and needed.

         Cracking of line pipe steels is analyzed with particular attention to the crack initiation process.  The paper is divided into two parts: The first part covers HIC and the second part covers SCC.  This overall terminology includes stress corrosion cracking (SCC), corrosion fatigue cracking (CFC), and hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC). The latter is also referred to as hydrogen embrittlement (HE), or hydrogen-assisted cracking (HAC). 

Speaker
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Abstract:

The O&G industry has been for years relying on knowledge more than information, in recent years the collapse of the O&G prices lead to major savings and new ways to operate. As we seen this, IIoT, ML, M2M, Analytics and AI has stepped forward looking for information to be, not only ahead of the market and be able to produce more or less according to the market demands, but having a safer operation costing less that previously, improving the O&M costs and having better knowledge of what is going on in the wells, the fields, the operation facilities, the personnel, the transportation, the structural integrity, the wear and operability of moving parts and the corrosion of pipes and tanks among others. The goal of a project of IIoT, ML, M2M, BI, BA or AI has to have a clear goal, What are the sources of information to achieve that?, the project must answer the questions that at this moment cannot be answered with the information we have or reduce the uncertainty of the main variables to make a decision, for example when to do the maintenance of the pumping units in a pipeline, we must do it as the manual of the equipment? Or before the parts fail? What is the optimal cost and safety mix that apply to the company, market, politics…? If we delay the maintenance how that will affect the operational costs Vs maintenance costs and Vs the safety of the personnel? How about the energy costs? How this affects the whole chain? The operations must get to the optimal point of operation, whatever this means to the company, for a certain company would be energy efficiency, for other, will be global O&M cost efficiency and the technology will help with this, the companies don’t need to have them all, but choose the one that will add to the strategical need of the company.

Ahri Lee

R & D Director, APTechnologies, Korea

Title: The Monitoring System for Oil Pipeline
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose monitoring system for protecting oil pipeline using DAS(Distributed Acoustic Sensing) and FOC(Fiber Optic Cable).  DAS and FOC are based on the fact that outdoor events could change the amplitude or speed of signal propagation and is based on the Rayleigh backscattered light. TPI(Third Party Intrusion) including oil pipeline  theft produces an acoustic noise around the place of incidents.

In this proposed method, we installed FOC and oil pipeline the 150cm underground. And when TPI occurs, it can detect the location of event location in real time and quickly. 

 This method can create a specific feather as well as a specific pattern in monitoring system.

One of this advantages can detect long distance monitoring system. It can be monitored up to 70km oil pipeline. This system might protect oil pipeline from oil theft as well as TPI.

DAS technology expands the applications for fiber optics use in the oil and gas industry.

 

Speaker
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Abstract:

The soil physicochemical parameter in Ohaji in Imo State, Nigeria was investigated using Ibeocha, Ekeugba, Awara, Mbirichi and Location as a case study. The result obtained from the soil analysis using standard methods shows that the concentrations of the heavy metals, Pb and Fe were highest in the soil from Ibeocha (0.045 ppm) and Mbirichi (0.126 ppm) which show the high rate of industrial activity and oil spill in those areas. There was no remarkable change in pH, but temperature followed the pattern of heavy metal concentration with acidic (lowest) values at the center. The cation exchange capacity of the soil sample from the location (14.066 ppm) shows that this soil sample has a lower contamination to compare to other soil samples from other location. Containment of the effects should be encouraged as soil from these sampling locations is contaminated due to the oil spill

Maaz Allah Khan

Azad Institute of Engineering and Technology, India

Title: Aerobic and Anaerobic Waste Water Treatments as Microbial Fuel
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Abstract:

Anaerobic wastewater treatment differs from conventional aerobic treatment. The absence of oxygen leads to controlled conversion of complex organic pollutions, mainly to carbon dioxide and methane. Anaerobic treatment has favorable effects like the removal of higher organic loading, low sludge production, high pathogen removal, biogas gas production and low energy consumption. Psychrophilic anaerobic treatment can be an attractive option to conventional anaerobic digestion for municipal sewage and industrial wastewaters that are discharged at moderate to low temperature

Speaker
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Abstract:

During shale gas development, large amount of adsorbed gas in the shale pores are gradually desorbed, which results in different shale properties changes such as permeability, structure, etc. This paper objective is to determine how the adsorption and desorption characteristics of shale can be used for shale gas evaluation. Different concepts such as: measured gas; lost gas; bulk density; residual gas; geochemistry of shale gas; gas filled porosity and others will be discussed and supported by theoretical evidences and experimental measurements. The importance of adsorption-desorption correlation to assure accurate shale gas content will be presented as well. The question of how small canisters and high resolution equipment are necessary to measure the gas content of individual shale sidewall samples will be answered

Day 2 :

  • Oil Gas 2019

Session Introduction

JB Batchamen

Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa

Title: The Fuel and Crude Oil Paraffinic/Naphthenic/Sweetness Content
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Two oil sample were assembled, and their paraffinic and naphthenic content were analysed using GC-MS to decompose each primary components. It is believed that lighter compounds revealed at a shorter retention time as compared to heavier compounds. Some paraffin compounds in the crude oil exposed their visibility on the chromatographic by repeatedly themselves on various retention time. Decane, 4-methyl (RT: 11.32, 11.32), Undecane, 5-methyl (RT: 14.8504, 14.9607), Tetradecane (RT: 20.67, 25.8346), Hexadecane (RT: 21.9112, 24.0211, 36.3431, 42.7557), Tetracosane (RT: 37.7221, 49.1614), Pentacosane (RT: 39.0529, 41.5697) and Octacosane (RT: 40.3355, 46.0999, 47.148, 48.1685) were the compounds obtained from the GC-MS analysis at various retention time. The paraffin content of the fuel oil named Heptacosane was the only compound revealed at a various retention time (RT: 42.7143, 43.8658, 44.9828, 46.0654, 47.1204). However, 12, 12% naphthene was present in the crude oil, and none in fuel oil. The crude oil was found to be more paraffinic by 54, 55% then fuel oil by 29%. Furthermore, the viscosity and the impurities content of the fuel oil was greater than the crude oil. Crude oil sulphur content of 565mg/L and fuel oil sulphur content of 2391mg/L were the analyses obtained by the ICP-MS which identified the sweetness and sourness of the oil. Both crude and fuel oil were sweetly referenced to the sulphur concentration. However, the sulphur content was predominant in the fuel oil in which therefore classified the crude oil to be sweeter than the fuel oil.

Keywords: Parrafins; Naphthenes; Retention time.

Speaker
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Abstract:

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) has become an important technology for the transportation of natural gas supplies over a long distance to areas where it is high demanded. The aim of this paper focuses on the technical and economic analysis of the potential for developing two US shale gas plays and determining the potential value of shale gas to LNG for export to the overseas natural gas market. Due to availability of large shale gas reserves combined with current market growth and low domestic natural gas prices has driven numerous gas producers in U.S to consider natural gas monetisation option such as gas export to more profitable markets in Asia in form of LNG. This has prompted a large development in LNG business. Last year, global LNG traded volumes reached a historic high of 258 million metric tonnes per annum (MMTPA) with the demand expected to rise more than 50% to about 500 MMTPA over the next 20 years. To sustain this LNG demand growth, natural gas reserves from shale plays like the Haynesville and Marcellus need to be further exploited with increased development of horizontal drilling. This paper analyses production behaviour of shale gas wells with different horizontal well lengths in Haynesville and Marcellus shale plays in the interest of economic development of an LNG plant. Currently, the proposed LNG train capacity is evaluated to yield between 4-5 MMTPA, which will require a daily gas production of 600-700 million standard cubic feet per day (MMSCFD). For a shale gas to LNG project to be economically viable, the available natural gas reserves should be sufficiently large to supply and maintain an LNG train at full capacity for a designed period. This is evaluated using average single well production profile from two shale plays by considering the number of horizontal shale gas wells to be drilled, decline gas production rates, gas price, facilities cost needed to supply two LNG trains at full capacity for 20 years.

 

Harshit Sharma

Lux Research Inc, Singapore

Title: Building a Roadmap for the Digital Oilfield
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

The use of data analytics, and the loosely defined 'Digital Oilfield' have been one of the most talked about emerging technologies in the oil and gas industry for the last decade or so. 

The industry has more than embraced these innovations, and is now exploring the next big breakthrough for digitizing its operations.

Harshit Sharma will present:

  • A technology roadmap of how the future, digital oil and gas industry will look like by 2030
  • Identifying key movers and players who are accelerating this renovation
  • Debate the likely challenges and issues which need resolving for the industry’s subsequent advance

 

Speaker
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Abstract:

Information age marks revolutionary changes in all aspects, but most notably in the domain of nanotechnology. The technological revolution involves nanomaterials, engineered or otherwise, that have great mechanical stability, high thermal conductivity, large current carrying ability, and tremendous flexibility in terms of compatibility with other materials. Because all mathematical models of nanomaterials use the same theories (ranging from sub-atomic to macro- through molecular scale), conflicting predictions of macroscopic properties of nanomaterials emerge. These contradictions have been dealt with dogmatic alterations of the governing equations, often with the problematic scientific explanation. However, in this paper, such contradictions are erased by starting with theories that do not invoke spurious assumptions. Spurious assumptions are removed at a fundamental level, thereby making atomic structure models consistent with macroscopic models. An immediate outcome of this approach is the elimination of two different governing equations for mass and energy balance. Consequently, there is no longer a
requirement to characterize forces as gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear. Also rendered redundant are the concepts of molecular forces, lattice energy and its relations to properties of solid, dipole-dipole forces, London dispersion forces, van der Waal’s forces, bonds, and others. By using a consistent model throughout, the need to have these notions as well as quantum mechanical narration through perturbation theory, supermolecular modeling and others is avoided. The resulting model describes properties of both conventional metals and others, including semiconductors. Because the entire
memory of a material is considered distinctly different features emerge for materials subject to nano-engineering. The model is useful for material characterization as well as for evaluating long-term sustainability. This fundamental modeling approach on technology development leads to the development of an array of new technologies that can have great impacts in the future. These technologies are sustainable and serve as a basis of sustainable oil and gas development. This model provides one with a guideline to study the long-term sustainability of novel materials, thereby enacting a protocol for
developing sustainable nanomaterials.

Speaker
Biography:

Poly α olefin/diesel system was studied by experiments with a rotating disk apparatus, to investigated drag reduction and degradation behavior. Four different concentrations were tested with time, rotating speed, temperature, mechanical and ultrasound treatment. The results show that there are an optimum time and maximum DR% for drag reduction, and DR% increases slowly with temperature in diesel. The higher concentration possesses shorter optimum time but higher rotating speed to take effect. Also, higher DRA concentration shows better degradation resistance at intensive shear and ultrasound circumstance. This phenomenon could be attributed to poly α olefin prefer to form more clusters than single-molecule forms at high concentration, compared with the lower one.    

Abstract:

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

An overview of porosity-permeability relationship in sand-shale and carbonate systems is discussed with available case studies.  They are heterogeneous systems ranging from excellent reservoirs to tight-impermeable rocks. Large variation in composition, depositional textures and structures is common in occurrence. Carbonates system tend is complex and difficult to predict compared to the sand system.  In general, based on statistical records these two systems together represent ninety-eight percent of reservoir rocks in the reported case histories of conventional petroleum system. In addition, ninety-six percent of source rocks are made of shale and mud component in carbonates while sixty-eight percent of them provide sealing mechanism in the petroleum geosystem from the available records.

 

The poroperm relationship with increasing depth is demonstrated using large dataset available on these systems., Other variables like density, pore size, shale volume and mineralogy have also been used wherever possible. Permeability dispersion in both systems is often anomalous particularly in the presence of mudstone in both systems as compared to porosity variation against depth suggesting heterogeneous behaviour on a core to log scale responsible in changing threshold pressure due to pore throat size. Calculation of shale volume and clay mineralogy plays a key role in sand shale system while grain size changes and diagenetic reactions control variation in the carbonate system while discussing the poroperm. Often features like bioturbation change the poroperm trend. Micro-scale anisotropy is one factor that is found to influence permeability which, in carbonates, can cover an extremely large range even in a single reservoir. Bedforms are influential in controlling permeability changes in the sand shale system. In general, depositional environment plays a key role in developing heterogeneity and also anisotropy.  Fracturing may enhance permeability in sandstone reservoirs.  Therefore, it is recommended to develop an analogy with the outcrop to understand the precise variation in the rocks.

Poroperm relationship with increasing depth particularly in the realization of gross to net thickness is crucial in improving understanding on quality of reservoir and thus certainty level is this high investment game of risk and uncertainty.