Scientific Program

Day 1 :

  • Oil and Gas

Session Introduction

Hussain Ahmed

University of Teesside, UK

Title: Supercritical CO2 EOR application in a selected carbonate oil
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

The demand for oil is increasing at a fast rate for the last few years. Demand growth this year is running at its fastest level in 24 years. Today, petroleum is produced worldwide at a rate of 42000 gallons per second. Efficient application of secondary and tertiary recovery techniques in super giant carbonate reservoirs of the Middle East will help supply the world demand for oil.
To estimate the extra oil production due to the application of any new and existing IOR/EOR techniques require the estimation of recovery efficiency of the selected technique. The physical model for estimating overall recovery consists of displacement efficiency, volumetric sweep efficiency, mobilization efficiency, and capturing efficiency. A significant number of EOR techniques focus on increasing the displacement efficiency as their main recovery mechanism.
This project will focus on optimizing supercritical CO2 flooding process in the selected reservoir using representative fluid and rock samples. It also proposes Carbon Capture and Sequestration as a solution to the current environmental problem of excessive CO2 release in the atmosphere. It also seeks to maximize economic success in the oil and gas industry by increasing production capacity through injection of CO2 as EOR in reservoirs within the UAE and the region.
Research results will help to assess recovery from supercritical-CO2 flooding process, and provide insight into the optimum conditions and alternative modes to apply this technique for optimum oil recovery.
Key words
Supercritical CO2; Carbonate reservoir; Enhanced Oil Recovery

Harshit Sharma

Lux Research Inc, Singapore

Title: Building a Roadmap for the Digital Oilfield
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

The use of data analytics, and the loosely defined 'Digital Oilfield' have been one of the most talked about emerging technologies in the oil and gas industry for the last decade or so. 

The industry has more than embraced these innovations, and is now exploring the next big breakthrough for digitizing its operations.

Harshit Sharma will present:

  • A technology roadmap of how the future, digital oil and gas industry will look like by 2030
  • Identifying key movers and players who are accelerating this renovation
  • Debate the likely challenges and issues which need resolving for the industry’s subsequent advance

 

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

During shale gas development, large amount of adsorbed gas in the shale pores are gradually desorbed, which results in different shale properties changes such as permeability, structure, etc. This paper objective is to determine how the adsorption and desorption characteristics of shale can be used for shale gas evaluation. Different concepts such as: measured gas; lost gas; bulk density; residual gas; geochemistry of shale gas; gas filled porosity and others will be discussed and supported by theoretical evidences and experimental measurements. The importance of adsorption-desorption correlation to assure accurate shale gas content will be presented as well. The question of how small canisters and high resolution equipment are necessary to measure the gas content of individual shale sidewall samples will be answered

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

An overview of porosity-permeability relationship in sand-shale and carbonate systems is discussed with available case studies.  They are heterogeneous systems ranging from excellent reservoirs to tight-impermeable rocks. Large variation in composition, depositional textures and structures is common in occurrence. Carbonates system tend is complex and difficult to predict compared to the sand system.  In general, based on statistical records these two systems together represent ninety-eight percent of reservoir rocks in the reported case histories of conventional petroleum system. In addition, ninety-six percent of source rocks are made of shale and mud component in carbonates while sixty-eight percent of them provide sealing mechanism in the petroleum geosystem from the available records.

 

The poroperm relationship with increasing depth is demonstrated using large dataset available on these systems., Other variables like density, pore size, shale volume and mineralogy have also been used wherever possible. Permeability dispersion in both systems is often anomalous particularly in the presence of mudstone in both systems as compared to porosity variation against depth suggesting heterogeneous behaviour on a core to log scale responsible in changing threshold pressure due to pore throat size. Calculation of shale volume and clay mineralogy plays a key role in sand shale system while grain size changes and diagenetic reactions control variation in the carbonate system while discussing the poroperm. Often features like bioturbation change the poroperm trend. Micro-scale anisotropy is one factor that is found to influence permeability which, in carbonates, can cover an extremely large range even in a single reservoir. Bedforms are influential in controlling permeability changes in the sand shale system. In general, depositional environment plays a key role in developing heterogeneity and also anisotropy.  Fracturing may enhance permeability in sandstone reservoirs.  Therefore, it is recommended to develop an analogy with the outcrop to understand the precise variation in the rocks.

Poroperm relationship with increasing depth particularly in the realization of gross to net thickness is crucial in improving understanding on quality of reservoir and thus certainty level is this high investment game of risk and uncertainty.

 

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Conventional method of injection that uses only a high concentration and molecular weight of single polymer, often leads to fingering effects due to mobility ratio, and the entrapment of pore throats in the injected area due to the difference in size between the pore throat and the hydrodynamic polymer chain radius. To avoid this unfavorable phenomenon, a sequential method of polymer injection is used by injecting varying molecular weight of polymers starting from low to high concentration in three stages of sequential injections. Polymer injection/flooding is considered one of the most effective and successful method for the enhancements of oil recovery.

In this work we have investigated the feasibility of sequential polymer injection in different reservoir rocks characterized by different heterogeneities. It is apparent that heterogeneity is one of the main factor associates with poor EOR performance. Therefore, investigating heterogeneity and the factors affect EOR efficiency is of great importance to oil/gas industry.

The static model was developed from an example field data in the region. Reservoir rock properties were correlated and modeled using Kiring and Gaussian geostatistics simulation.  Thereafter the model was brought to reservoir simulation software to investigate EOR performance. The REVEAL and in house simulator software have been used for assessing the efficiency EOR model using sequential chemicals injection.

Results indicated that sequentially injected polymers varying in concentrations can be a viable alternative to conventional polymer flooding methods, particularly in very heterogeneous reservoir if compared to results obtained with conventional method of polymer injection.

 

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Two crude oil A and B of different API gravity was collected, and their asphaltene content was analysed using paraffin’s solvents, and further drying process was conducted at room temperature. The measure of the solvents from 200mL, 150mL, 100mL and 50mL was well measured and assembles in which therefore was pour into a 250mL beaker with each crude oil (A, B) mass of 5g. The mixture of each crude oil types with a specific volume of the three solvents pentane, hexane and heptane was gently mixed and stirred homogeneously at 170 rates per revolution (rpm). The asphaltene content obtained in all ratios from (40:1) in which 200mL was poured into the 5g of crude oil, (30:1) in which 150mL was poured into 5g of crude, (20:1) in which 100mL was poured into 5g of crude oil and lastly (20:1)* in which 50mL was poured into 2.5g of crude oil. The procedures were therefore repeated for the rest of the two solvents hexane and heptane. Pentane extracted more asphaltene than other two remaining solvents. It was observed that, single solvent for ratio (40:1) had removed 6.6g/mL asphaltene content, ratio (30:1) 11g/mL, (20:1) 9.2g/mL and (20:1)* 13.2g/mL asphaltene content. The greater asphaltene content was obtained on pentane in crude oil A sample in which had the same outcome for crude oil B and C. Solvent to solvent ratio in which two solvents mixed are the same time at (1:1) on the basis of 100mL of each solvent with the total of 200mL for the mixture was carefully conducted. The mixture of pentane and hexane (C5+C6) had the greater ability to extract the asphaltene content from the two crude oil A, and B follow by Pentane and heptanes (C5+C7) lastly Hexane and Heptane (C6+C7). The solvent to the solvent ratio (C5+C6) for crude oil A had 11.6g/mL, and for crude oil, B had 11.6g/mL. Lastly solvent to the solvent ratio (3:1) which 75mL of each selective solvent of the three mixed with 25mL each solvent of the same was conducted as well. It was noticed that this ratio (3:1) extracted more asphaltene than any other ratio within crude oil A and B. However the best optimiser was conducted at (C6+C5).
Keywords: Asphaltene; Solvents; Paraffins; Precipitation

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Inorganic scales precipitate in oilfield systems - down hole in the reservoir, in the production flow tubing, and in surface facilities - as a consequence of thermodynamic changes that affect the flowing brines. These changes may be induced by temperature or pressure changes, or by mixing of incompatible brines. While much work has been performed to study the effect of thermodynamic changes such as pressure decrease or temperature increase on scale precipitation, it is only recently that a body of work has been developed on the impact that the dynamics of brine mixing in the reservoir has on scale precipitation in situ. Much of this work has been conducted using finite difference simulators, which are handicapped with regard to these calculations in that numerical dispersion effects can be orders of magnitude greater than physical dispersion.
The introduction of chemical reaction calculations into streamline simulation models presents a very significant opportunity for improving the accuracy of such calculations. While numerical dispersion effects for immiscible calculations (eg water displacing oil) can be countered by pseudoisation of the relative permeability functions, in finite difference models it is difficult to control numerical dispersion for miscible displacements - eg seawater (with a Sulphate concentration) displacing
Formation water (with a barium or strontium concentration), which may lead to scaling in the reservoir (BaSO4 or SrSO4 precipitation). Streamline simulation reduces the numerical errors for both miscible
And immiscible displacement - so making the scaling calculations much more accurate.
The objective of this paper is to study the application of a streamline simulator that has the appropriate chemistry modeling capabilities to realistic reservoir scenarios. The calculations performed demonstrate where, and under what conditions, scale precipitation takes place in situ in the reservoir, and what the resulting impact on the chemical composition of the produced brine will be. This information is key in the planning of management of oilfield scale, especially in developments where options for scale mitigation may be limited.
Tharwat Fawzy (BUE) and Eric Mackay (Heriot-Watt University)

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

The current global energy demand is highly dependent on the extraction of natural resources that remains trapped within existing oil reservoirs. Initially, the crude oil is recovered by primary and secondary techniques. However, nearly two-thirds of the original oil in place (OOIP) still remains within the rock pores. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) encompass a variety of mechanisms to achieve greater oil recovery by the incorporation of various techniques. One of these methods involve the injection of chemical slugs that are injected into the reservoir to effectively displace residual oil. Surfactant design is a potential area of interest in this method. Surfactants lower IFT by adsorbing onto the crude oil-aqueous interface and improve the oil displacement efficiency in chemical EOR processes.

In the present study a family of carboxybetaine based surfactants with hydrophobic tail length of 12, 14, 16 and 18 carbons were synthesized for their application in chemical EOR. The synthesis of surfactants was done by quaternizing tertiary amines of different carbon chain lengths by sodium chloroacetate. The synthesized surfactants were characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy and their solubility in water was tested by Krafft temperature analysis and salt tolerance test. To check for the applicability of surfactants in chemical EOR, their IFT reduction tendency, phase behavior and wettability alteration effectiveness were evaluated. Finally, sand pack experiments were conducted to test the recovery of trapped oil by injection of surfactant slug along with alkali and polymer.

IFT between oil and surfactant solution was also found to reduce with increase in carbon chain length and ultralow IFT was achieved by the synergetic effect of alkali and C16DmCB surfactant. The larger hydrophobic tail length was found to improve the oil-water interface activity. C16DmCB surfactant was found to form stable three phase microemulsion which is beneficial for its applicability in EOR. The surfactants were also found effective in altering the wettability of oil-wet quartz sample to preferentially water-wet with very lesser loss of surfactants.  More than 30% additional oil recovery was achieved by the synergetic effect of alkali-surfactant-polymer in flooding experiments. The results show that the synthesized zwitterionic surfactants are having good potential for their use in chemical EOR.

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

The current work deals with developing, assessing, and analyzing a novel improved water-based drilling mud by using alternatives based on waste materials for the purpose of substitution of the commercial drilling mud constituents. Two alternatives were investigated, the first is an industrial waste as alternative for the commercial barite; the weighting products used for increasing fluid density, the second alternative has been derived from an agro waste and used as substituent of the commercial lignosulfonates; the thinning agents used for clay deflocculating and reduction of drilling fluids viscosity. The effect of  the content (wt.%) of first alternative (7.2-12.8),  and the second alternative (3-7.8)  on  mud weight, pH, and rheological properties including  plastic viscosity, yield point, gel strength, filtration loss, apparent viscosity and filter cake thickness was optimized using two factorial central composite experimental design. The mathematical models for prediction the effect of the content of the two alternative materials on drilling fluid characteristics were estimated.  The effect of salt contamination NaCl (0-5) % weight and pH (7.12-11.95) on rheological properties of the new adopted drilling mud formulations contain the optimum concentration of the two alternatives estimated from response surface analysis was investigated and correlated. The overall results revealed that the tested alternatives are promising substituents for the commercial mud constituents. The stability of the formulated drilling fluid seemed to change due to salt contamination and changing the pH in particulaire plastic and apparent viscosity and yield point. Using the new alternative ingredients may highly contribute to production of new drilling mud formulations of developed performance,  minimizing the drilling mud cost, as well as protection the environnement by reusing the waste materials  instead of its  disposal.

Keywords

Drilling mud; Waste; Rheological properties; Optimization; Modeling  

 

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

  1. OBJECTIVES/SCOPE:

It's an era of non-conventional resources. With increase in complication in drilling, and transportation of crude oil the need for Cutting edge technologies is growing at a high pace. The sole objective of the Paper is to make use of the modified microorganism (having altered DNA) to digest oil if accidentally Oil Spill occurs in order to reduce Environmental Pollution.

2. METHODS, PROCEDURES,PROCESS:

Oil Digesting Bacteria’s such as Thalassolituus olievorans and Neptumonas can reduce the fear of Oil Spill during the Transportation of Oil as these microorganisms can digest oil and break long chain of alkenes and convert it into CO2 and water.

The paper describes about the new approach that is based on combination of the DNA of Oliespira (Highly efficient deep sea oil digester that cannot work in saline conditions) and Neptumonas (Poor Oil Digester that can work in saline conditions). Using DNA Recombination Technique through which we can alter the DNA of the bacteria so that we can get single bacteria having both the desired characters (i.e. a bacteria containing both features of High efficiency and can work in saline water). These modified bacteria’s can be exploited by making the use of asexual reproduction and unfavourable conditions for increasing the no. of bacteria.

      3. RESULTS, OBSERVATIONS, CONCLUSIONS:

The modified bacteria having both the desired traits i.e. Digestion of Oil in sea water and deep sea levels will help in solving the problem of environmental pollution. The results would be mind boggling as a single microorganism would serve as the solution for various terms related to Oil Spill. The microorganism at normal or low temperature it will act as an Oil Digester which can work in sea water. With the use of these modified microorganisms we will be able to protect our environment and hence control extent of oil spill.

     4. NOVEL OR ADDITIVE INFORMATION:

        Exemplary management and proper working of these genetically           modified bacteria’s would be a boost for the industry. With the use of these modified microorganisms (bacteria’s) we will be able to protect our environment and also avoid the harmful effects caused by the Oil Spills.

 

 

 

Day 2 :

  • Oil Gas 2018

Session Introduction

Ahri Lee

R & D Director, APTechnologies, Korea

Title: The Monitoring System for Oil Pipeline
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose monitoring system for protecting oil pipeline using DAS(Distributed Acoustic Sensing) and FOC(Fiber Optic Cable).  DAS and FOC are based on the fact that outdoor events could change the amplitude or speed of signal propagation and is based on the Rayleigh backscattered light. TPI(Third Party Intrusion) including oil pipeline  theft produces an acoustic noise around the place of incidents.

In this proposed method, we installed FOC and oil pipeline the 150cm underground. And when TPI occurs, it can detect the location of event location in real time and quickly. 

 This method can create a specific feather as well as a specific pattern in monitoring system.

One of this advantages can detect long distance monitoring system. It can be monitored up to 70km oil pipeline. This system might protect oil pipeline from oil theft as well as TPI.

DAS technology expands the applications for fiber optics use in the oil and gas industry.

 

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

This paper investigates the gas and water breakthrough time using sector model (SM) in the naturally fractured (NF) carbonate reservoirs located in Northern Iraq.  The naturally fractured reservoirs have complex pore system since rock formations are susceptible to diagenetic process such as dissolution, dolomitization and mechanical fracturing. As a result the reservoir quality may be enhanced or occluded through cementation. The complexity of a fracture network typically leads an anisotropic permeability distribution within the reservoir. Thus ultimate recovery can be achieved with carefully planned reservoir management strategies through conducting an accurate reservoir modeling and simulation.

In this work a sector model was developed based on the studied example field. The field produces from four NF compartments; the average reservoir height is around 95m in which the WOC and GOC located at depth 685m and 590m, respectively. The reservoir rock properties modeled using a dual-porosity with single-permeability system. This model was based on the layercake Petrel model. Furthermore, a sensitivity study also conducted with the aim to investigate the dependences of the well and field-performance.

Results showed that matrix permeability and fracture dimension have great effect on early water and gas breakthrough. While aquifer size and permeability and WOC have moderate effect on both water breakthrough and ultimate recovery when compared to previous parameters. 

 

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Based on the published data, Egypt’s unconventional hydrocarbon potential is estimated to be around 500 TCF of Gas in Place and 200 Billion barrels of Oil in Place. Multiple publications discuss certain source rocks potential of the Egyptian basins but none compare and/or map all possible source rocks of Egypt based on quality and productivity. The source rocks of Egypt vary in quality, hydrocarbon type and productivity across Egypt; from the Western Desert, WD, to the Gulf of Suez, GOS. They also vary within the same basin based on depth, maturity and hydrocarbon potential. Mapping the source rocks across Egypt will help the operating companies to properly rank the source rocks of the Egyptian basins and increase the success rate of unleashing this considerable potential. This study purports to analyze the various published and current researches on the geologic and reservoir data related to Egypt’s unconventional reservoirs to generate a solid scientific mapping of Egypt potential across Egypt.

The parameters used to map the unconventional potential across Egypt include, but are not limited to, the total organic carbon TOC, the free hydrocarbon S1, the source rock potential S2, the CO2 component S3, the level of maturity LOM, the vitrinite reflectance VR, the hydrogen index HI, the oxygen index OI, the production index PI, and maximum temperature Tmax. All data are based on lab measurements either on core or ditched samples. These parameters help afford the data needed in order to illustrate the current understanding of the quality and quantity of resources in Egypt. Explicit data from fields across Egypt is used to build assessments that identify the quality and the productivity potential of Egypt’s unconventional reservoirs

 

JB Batchamen

Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa

Title: The Fuel and Crude Oil Paraffinic/Naphthenic/Sweetness Content
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Two oil sample were assembled, and their paraffinic and naphthenic content were analysed using GC-MS to decompose each primary components. It is believed that lighter compounds revealed at a shorter retention time as compared to heavier compounds. Some paraffin compounds in the crude oil exposed their visibility on the chromatographic by repeatedly themselves on various retention time. Decane, 4-methyl (RT: 11.32, 11.32), Undecane, 5-methyl (RT: 14.8504, 14.9607), Tetradecane (RT: 20.67, 25.8346), Hexadecane (RT: 21.9112, 24.0211, 36.3431, 42.7557), Tetracosane (RT: 37.7221, 49.1614), Pentacosane (RT: 39.0529, 41.5697) and Octacosane (RT: 40.3355, 46.0999, 47.148, 48.1685) were the compounds obtained from the GC-MS analysis at various retention time. The paraffin content of the fuel oil named Heptacosane was the only compound revealed at a various retention time (RT: 42.7143, 43.8658, 44.9828, 46.0654, 47.1204). However, 12, 12% naphthene was present in the crude oil, and none in fuel oil. The crude oil was found to be more paraffinic by 54, 55% then fuel oil by 29%. Furthermore, the viscosity and the impurities content of the fuel oil was greater than the crude oil. Crude oil sulphur content of 565mg/L and fuel oil sulphur content of 2391mg/L were the analyses obtained by the ICP-MS which identified the sweetness and sourness of the oil. Both crude and fuel oil were sweetly referenced to the sulphur concentration. However, the sulphur content was predominant in the fuel oil in which therefore classified the crude oil to be sweeter than the fuel oil.

Keywords: Parrafins; Naphthenes; Retention time.

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Both chemical industry and academia search for alternative solvents to meet the cleaner technology requirements since the most widely used solvents are volatile and harmful.

The capacity and selectivity of these organic solvents in each of these systems were determined from the tie-lines data. The capacity of the isobutyle acetate was found to be the highest among the other solvents, and its selectivity was also the highest. Similar results also were obtained for the ethyl methyl keton but gave less capacity and selectivity as compared to the isobutyle acetate. It can be concluded that both isobutyle acetate and ethyl methyl keton are good solvents for extraction of phenol from industrial water.

The analysis and efficiency of phenol extraction from the industrial water using different solvents, were investigated. To our knowledge, the experimental information available in the literature for liquid-liquid equilibria of ternary mixtures containing the pair phenol-water is limited. Therefore the purpose of the present investigation is to generate the data for the water-phenol with different solvents to aid the correlation of liquid-liquid equilibria, including phase diagrams, distribution coefficients of phenol, tie-lines data and selectivity of the solvents for the aqueous phenol system.

The ternary equilibrium diagrams and tie-lines data for systems containing Water-Phenol-Benzene, Water-Phenol-Chloroform, Water-Phenol-iso-Butyl Acetate, Water-Phenol-Butanol, Water-Phenol-Ethyl Methyl Keton and Water-Phenol-Toluene, were determined at 303 K and atmospheric pressure.

The liquid-liquid equilibrium data of ternary systems were correlated to the NRTL, UNIQUAC and UNIFAC models of activity coefficient to determine their adjustable parameters. The standard deviations from experimental compositions were calculated. Results show that the correlation may be greatly improved by applying the NRTL model with the regression criteria based on minimizing the experimental and calculating distribution coefficients SK to give an average value of the root mean square deviation about 1.436 % and in terms of the average errors in the distribution ratio for all tie-lines about 10.776 %.

 

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

The carbonate Jeribe Formation of the Middle Miocene age has been studied from  the well Hr-49 in Hamrin Oilfield depending mainly on the data from the available wire line logs.  The technique of the quick look method used for preliminarily indicating the existence of the hydrocarbons in the studied formation and the possibility of their movement for production. The calculated values of the porosity and permeability aided in determining four flow zones representing four unique hydraulic flow units. The cutoff of 0.6 Movaeble Hydrocarbon Index also used to differentiate between zones  containing movaeble hydrocarbons and zones of water bearing or of non movaeble hydrocarbons (zones of high residual hydrocarbon saturation).  Accordingly, the gross 47m thickness of  the Jeribe Formation appeared to be containing hydrocarbons with different saturations intercalated with narrow  water bearing horizons. The highest production efficiency exists at the upper part of the formation (Reservoir Unit 4A) and the lowest at the lower part (Reservoir Unit 2). Production looks to be supported by the secondary porosities (fractures or voids) that been detected in different depths along the studied section.