Biofuels, Fossil Fuels and Advancement in Alternative Fuels
Biofuels produced using conventional technology and by and large use food crops (such as sugar, corn) as the source of biomass. The two most notable first generation biofuels are bioethanol and biodiesel. Other first generation biofuels include butanol, alcohol and biogas. Second generation biofuels make use of more advanced technology such as gasification and liquefaction processes to convert biomass into biofuel. Bio-fuels are a potentially more environmentally friendly substitute for fossil fuels and this is naturally where their strengths lie. The latest focus on so called third generation biofuels focuses on algae. Bioethanol is an alcohol-based fuel made through the fermentation of crops such as barley, wheat, corn or sugar cane. It is the most commonly used biofuel worldwide. Other commonly used derivatives include kerosene and propane. During the process of combustion, pollutants such as carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are emitted and enter the atmosphere. These contaminants are called greenhouse gases.