Soran University, Kurdistan Region Iraq
The current work deals with developing, assessing, and analyzing a novel improved water-based drilling mud by using alternatives based on waste materials for the purpose of substitution of the commercial drilling mud constituents. Two alternatives were investigated, the first is an industrial waste as alternative for the commercial barite; the weighting products used for increasing fluid density, the second alternative has been derived from an agro waste and used as substituent of the commercial lignosulfonates; the thinning agents used for clay deflocculating and reduction of drilling fluids viscosity. The effect of the content (wt.%) of first alternative (7.2-12.8), and the second alternative (3-7.8) on mud weight, pH, and rheological properties including plastic viscosity, yield point, gel strength, filtration loss, apparent viscosity and filter cake thickness was optimized using two factorial central composite experimental design. The mathematical models for prediction the effect of the content of the two alternative materials on drilling fluid characteristics were estimated. The effect of salt contamination NaCl (0-5) % weight and pH (7.12-11.95) on rheological properties of the new adopted drilling mud formulations contain the optimum concentration of the two alternatives estimated from response surface analysis was investigated and correlated. The overall results revealed that the tested alternatives are promising substituents for the commercial mud constituents. The stability of the formulated drilling fluid seemed to change due to salt contamination and changing the pH in particulaire plastic and apparent viscosity and yield point. Using the new alternative ingredients may highly contribute to production of new drilling mud formulations of developed performance, minimizing the drilling mud cost, as well as protection the environnement by reusing the waste materials instead of its disposal.
Drilling mud; Waste; Rheological properties; Optimization; Modeling